This is a fact sheet about a chemical that may be found in some public or
private drinking water supplies. It may cause health problems if found
in amounts greater than the health standard set by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
What is Alachlor and how is it used?
Alachlor is an odorless, white solid. The greatest use of alachlor is as a
herbicide for control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in crops,
primarily on corn, sorghum and soybeans. Alachlor is the second most
widely used herbicide in the United States, with particularly heavy use
on corn and soybeans in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska,
Ohio, and Wisconsin.
The list of trade names given below may help you find out whether you
are using this chemical at home or work.
Trade Names and Synonyms:
Why is Alachlor being regulated?
In 1974, Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. This law requires
EPA to determine safe levels of chemicals in drinking water which do or
may cause health problems. These non-enforceable levels, based solely on
possible health risks and exposure, are called Maximum Contaminant Level
The MCLG for alachlor has been set at zero because EPA believes
this level of protection would not cause any of the long-term effects
Based on this MCLG, EPA has set an enforceable standard called a
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as
possible, considering the ability of public water systems to detect and
remove contaminants using suitable treatment technologies.
The MCL has been set at 2 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA
believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest
level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this
contaminant should it occur in drinking water.
These drinking water standards and the regulations for ensuring
these standards are met, are called National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations. All public water supplies must abide by these regulations.
What are the health effects?
Short-term: EPA has found alachlor to potentially cause the following
health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for
relatively short periods of time: slight skin and eye irritation.
Long-term: Alachlor has the potential to cause the following
effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: damage to
liver, kidney, spleen; lining of nose and eyelids; cancer.
How much Alachlor is produced and released to the environment?
The major source of environmental release of alachlor is through its
manufacture and use as a herbicide. Alachlor was detected in rural
domestic well water by EPA's National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking
Water Wells. EPA's Pesticides in Ground Water Database reports
detections of alachlor in ground water at concentrations above the MCL
in at least 15 States.
What happens to Alachlor when it is released to the environment?
If released to soil, alachlor can be broken down by bacteria and sunlight,
usually within two months. However, alachor does not bind to most soils
very well and may either evaporate or leach into ground water.
Sunlight and bacterial action are also important for degrading alachlor in surface water, but evaporation generally does not occur. Once alachlor enters ground water, its break down is very slow.
The bioconcentration of alachlor in aquatic organisms is not important. Any alachlor taken up by plants or animals is quickly eliminated.
How will Alachlor be detected in and removed from my drinking
The regulation for alachlor became effective in 1992. Between 1993 and
1995, EPA required your water supplier to collect water samples every 3
months for one year and analyze them to find out if alachlor is present
above 0.2 ppb. If it is present above this level, the system must
continue to monitor this contaminant.
If contaminant levels are found to be consistently above the MCL,
your water supplier must take steps to reduce the amount of alachlor so
that it is consistently below that level. The following treatment
methods have been approved by EPA for removing alachlor: Granular
How will I know if Alachlor is in my drinking water?
If the levels exceed the MCL, 2 ppb, the system must notify the public via
newspapers, radio, TV and other means. Additional actions, such as
providing alternative drinking water supplies, may be required to
prevent serious risks to public health.
This is a factsheet about a chemical that may be found in some
public or private drinking water supplies. It may cause health problems
if found in amounts greater than the health standard set by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Drinking Water Standards:
Note: This fact sheet is part of a larger publication
adapted from U.S. EPA publication: EPA National Primary Drinking Water
Mcl: 2 ppb (parts per billion)