This is a fact sheet about a chemical that may be found in some public or
private drinking water supplies. It may cause health problems if found
in amounts greater than the health standard set by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
What is Vinyl Chloride and how is it used?
Vinyl chloride is a colorless organic gas with a sweet odor. It is used
in the manufacture of numerous products in building and construction,
automotive industry, electrical wire insulation and cables, piping,
industrial and household equipment, medical supplies, and is depended
upon heavily by the rubber, paper, and glass industries.
The list of trade names given below may help you find out whether you are using this chemical at home or work.
Trade Names and Synonyms:
Monovinyl chloride (MVC)
Why is Vinyl Chloride being regulated?
In 1974, Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. This law requires
EPA to determine safe levels of chemicals in drinking water which do or
may cause health problems. These non-enforceable levels, based solely on
possible health risks and exposure, are called Maximum Contaminant Level
The MCLG for vinyl chloride has been set at zero because EPA
believes this level of protection would not cause any of the potential
health problems described below.
Based on this MCLG, EPA has set an enforceable standard called a
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as
possible, considering the ability of public water systems to detect and
remove contaminants using suitable treatment technologies.
The MCL has been set at 2 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA
believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest
level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this
contaminant should it occur in drinking water.
These drinking water standards and the regulations for ensuring
these standards are met, are called National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations. All public water supplies must abide by these regulations.
What are the health effects?
Short-term: EPA has found vinyl chloride to potentially cause the
following health effects when people are exposed to it at high levels
(40 - 900 mg/L) for relatively short periods of time: damage to the
Long-term: Vinyl chloride has the potential to cause cancer and
may damage the liver following a lifetime exposure at levels above 0.1
How much Vinyl Chloride is produced and released to the environment?
Production of vinyl chloride in 1993 was nearly 14 billion lbs. Its major
release to the environment will be as emissions and wastewater at
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics production and manufacturing
facilities. Small quantities of vinyl chloride can be released to food
since it is used to make many food wrappings and containers.
What happens to Vinyl Chloride when it is released to the environment?
Vinyl chloride released to soil will either quickly evaporate, be broken
down by microbes or may leach to the groundwater. It also rapidly
evaporates from water, but does not degrade there. It will not
accumulate in aquatic life.
How will Vinyl Chloride be detected in and removed from my drinking
The regulation for vinyl chloride became effective in 1989. Between 1993
and 1995, EPA required your water supplier to collect water samples
every 3 months for one year and analyze them to find out if vinyl
chloride is present above 0.5 ppb. If it is present above this level,
the system must continue to monitor this contaminant.
If contaminant levels are found to be consistently above the MCL,
your water supplier must take steps to reduce the amount of vinyl
chloride so that it is consistently below that level. The following
treatment methods have been approved by EPA for removing vinyl chloride:
Granular activated charcoal in combination with Packed Tower Aeration.
How will I know if Vinyl Chloride is in my drinking water?
If the levels of vinyl chloride exceed the MCL, 2 ppb, the system must
notify the public via newspapers, radio, TV and other means. Additional
actions, such as providing alternative drinking water supplies, may be
required to prevent serious risks to public health.
Drinking Water Standards:
MCL: 0.002 mg/L, or 2 parts per billion
Note: This fact sheet is part of a larger publication
adapted from U.S. EPA publication: EPA National Primary Drinking Water