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Home>Water University>Water Glossary>Water Glossary: G

Water Glossary: G

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Gallionella Ferruginea A genus of stalked, ribbon-like bacteria which utilize iron in their metabolism, and cause staining, plugging and odor problems in water systems. (See iron bacteria.)
Gallon A unit of liquid volume; the U.S. gallon has a volume of 231 cubic inches or 3.78533 liters; the British (Imperial) gallon has a volume of 277.418 cubic inches or 4.54596 liters.
Galvanic Cell A cell which generates an electrical current, consisting of dissimilar metals in contact with each other and with an electrolyte.
Galvanic Corrosion The form of corrosion which occurs in a galvanic cell, in which one of the metals goes into solution; accelerated by high concentrations of dissolved minerals in water, which increases the electrical conductance; and elevated temperatures. (See corrosion, electrolyte.)
Gate Valve A valve with the closing element that is a disc which is moved across the stream, often in a groove or slot, for support against pressure.
Gel Zeolite A synthetic sodium aluminoscilicate ion exchanger.
Giardia Lamblia An intestinal parasite commonly found in water supplies originating in mountainous or wooded watersheds. It exists as a free-swimming protozoan-like organism in warm-blooded animals' intestines, causing chronic diarrhea, cramps, bloating and weight loss. Outside of the intestines, it forms a tough cyst that protects it until it finds a new host. Resistant to chlorine and most oxidizing agents, Giardia can be removed effectively through filtration below 1 micrometer.
Giardia Lamblia A protozoan frequently found in rivers and lakes, which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months, associated with the disease giardiasis. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water, exposure from person-to-person contact, and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea, fatigue, and cramps.
Globe Valve A valve in which the closing element is a sphere, or a flat or rounded gasket, which is moved into or onto a round port.
Gpg Abbreviation for "grain(s) per gallon".
Grab Sample A single sample of material collected at one place and one time.
Grain (Gr.) A unit of eight equal to 1/7000th of a pound, or 0.0648 gram.
Grain(S) Per Gallon (Gpg) A common basis for reporting water analyses in the United States and Canada; one grain per U.S. gallon equals 17.12 milligrams per liter (mg/l) or parts per million (ppm). One grain per British (Imperial) gallon equals 14.3 milligrams per liter or parts per million.
Gram (G) The basic unit of weight (mass) of the metric system, originally intended to be the weight of 1 cubic centimeter of water at 4oC. (One pound is 454 grams.)
Gram-Milliequivalent The equivalent weight of a substance in grams, divided by one thousand.
Gravimetric Measurement of matter on the basis of weight.
Greensand A natural mineral, primarily composed of complex silicates, which possess ion exchange properties. (See manganese greensand, zeolite.)
Ground Water The water that systems pump and treat from aquifers (natural reservoirs below the earth's surface).